Kustība un traumas. Kā mazināt riskus

Tik ļoti pavasarī gribas pilnvērtīgi izmantot katru iespēju atrasties ārā, izkustēties un kaut uz brīdi aizmirst par visiem ierobežojumiem. Tieši tādēļ ne viens vien šobrīd nopietnāk pievēršas sportošanai, bet, kur aktivitātes, tur iespējamas arī traumas. Kā no tām izvairīties un ko darīt, ja tomēr nav paveicies – uz jautājumiem atbild AIWA Clinic traumatologs ortopēds Visams Rafaels un Mēness aptiekas farmaceite Ieva Virza. 

“Biežāk nekā iepriekš sastopos ar cilvēkiem, kuri līdz šim nav daudz sportojuši, bet, atrodoties piespiedu izolācijā, pievērsušies krietni veselīgam dzīvesveidam, tostarp sportam, un diemžēl nereti pārvērtē savus spēkus. Uzsākot nodarboties ar jebkuru sporta veidu, jābūt uzmanīgam – nevajadzētu iedomāties, ka spēj to pašu, ko bērnībā vai pusaudža gados. Pie slodzes ķermenis ir jāpieradina pamazām, lai neveidotos muskuļu saišu iekaisums vai, sliktākajā gadījumā, saišu bojājums vai pat daļējs plīsums. Tāpēc treniņš vienmēr jāsāk ar muskulatūras uzsildīšanu,” skaidro AIWA Clinic traumatologs ortopēds Visams Rafaels. Taču, ja sporto, tad, protams, ir iespējams arī nokrist un sasisties.

Kā izvairīties no traumām?

Uz riteņiem 

Biežākās ir plaukstu un elkoņa locītavas traumas, jo kritiena laikā vispirms aizsargājoties izstiepjam rokas. Ja krītot plauksta ir taisna un saspringta, visai iespējams, ka tiks izsista pleca locītava. Tad seko ceļu locītavu un apakšstilbu traumas. Braucot ar velosipēdu, skrejriteni, skrituļslidām vai elektroskūteri vienmēr izmantojiet visus aizsarglīdzekļus – ķiveri, ceļu, elkoņu aizsargus un arī speciālos cimdus.

Uz batuta 

Nupat iegādāts batuts jāuzstāda, sekojot instrukcijai, bet, ja iepriekšējā sezonā tas jau ir izmantots, tad jāpārliecinās, ka batuts ir tehniskā kārtībā, īpaši, ja tas visu ziemu atradies ārā. Lai arī aizsargtīkla uzdevums ir radīt papildus drošību, nereti tas tomēr nepilda savu funkciju. Svarīgākais batuta lietošanas noteikums: uz tā drīkst lēkāt tikai viens cilvēks. Kādēļ? Pirmkārt, no pārsniegta pieļaujamā svara batuts var plīst; otrkārt, arī tad, ja uz batuta ir, piemēram, divi mazi bērni, vienam, atduroties pret batuta virsmu, tā virzās uz augšu, bet, otrs piezemējoties tādēļ nesaņem amortizāciju, un rezultātā – pēdas locītavas potītes lūzums. 

Ar bumbu

Spēlējot kādu no bumbas sporta veidiem, biežāk pastāv risks traumēt apakšstilbu un ceļa locītavu. Liela nozīme ir apaviem – ja tie nav piemēroti, kājas slīd un var gūt meniska bojājumu. Spēlējot pludmales volejbolu vai pludmales futbolu basām kājām, iespējams, tās smiltīs slīdēs mazāk, taču traumu risks pastāv tik un tā. Pirms spēles muskuļus noteikti vajag iesildīt. Ja spēlēt patīk, bet zināt, ka muskuļi nav gana spēcīgi, celim var uzlikt papildu fiksējošu ortozi. 

Ūdenī 

Tuvojas laiks, kad sāks vilināt arī ūdenstilpnes. Tie, kam patīk asas izjūtas, lecot ūdenī, neapzinās, cik nopietnu traumu var gūt. Kategoriski aizliegts lēkt nezināmā ūdenstilpē un arī tad, ja vieta šķiet zināma, labāk tomēr nelēkt, jo ūdenskrātuves dibens ar laiku var mainīties – parādīties izskalojumi, kāds akmens vai ass priekšmets. Tādēļ ar galvu pa priekšu labāk nelēkt nekur. 

Pirmā palīdzība traumas gadījumā

  • Novērtējiet, vai nav redzama ekstremitātes deformācija. Ja ir, tad noticis lūzums vai locītava ir izsista no vietas. Par nopietnu traumu liecina kustības, kādas nav bijušās līdz šim, krakšķoša sajūta locītavā vai ļoti stipras sāpes. Šādos gadījumos tūlīt jāgriežas pēc palīdzības traumpunktā. 
  • Ja pēc kritiena ekstremitāte nav vizuāli izmainīta, taču jūtamas sāpes, pirmā palīdzība ir atpūta, ledus uz traumētās vietas, rokas vai kājas fiksēšana nekustīgā pozā un pacelšana nedaudz augstāk. Var iedzert pretsāpju un pretiekaisuma līdzekli, kas aptiekā nopērkams bez receptes. Lokāli var lietot arī ziedi, kam ir dzesējošs, ne sildošs efekts. Ja divu dienu laikā sāpes pastiprinās, kļūst sliktāk, noteikti jākonsultējas ar ārstu. To var darīt, arī neizejot no mājas, piesakoties uz ārsta online konsultāciju.

Kādos gadījumos noderēs online konsultācija?

Traumatologam ortopēdam parasti ir svarīgi traumu redzēt, tomēr ir situācijas, kad var izlīdzēties ar online konsultāciju. Ja izmeklējumi (rentgens, ultrasonogrāfija vai magnētiskā rezonanse) jau ir veikti, piesakoties uz online konsultāciju, attiecīgajā lodziņā jāapraksta sūdzības un elektroniski jāpievieno izmeklējumu rezultāti. Pirms konsultācijas jāieklausās savās sajūtās, jāpārdomā un jāstrukturē stāstījums. Ārsts to savietos ar izmeklējumu rezultātiem, noteiks diagnozi un ārstēšanu. 

Kustība ir dzīve – bez kustības mēs ierūsējam, taču jākustas ir pareizi. Ja padarīsim kustēšanos, sportu par ikdienas rutīnu, tad traumu risks būs ievērojami mazāks. 

Ko iegādāties aptiekā?

Mēness aptiekas farmaceites Ievas Virzas ieteikumi, ko svarīgi ņemt vērā, ja iegūta traumām, tomēr traumatologa palīdzība nav nepieciešama.

Sasitumam pēc iespējas ātrāk ir jāuzliek aukstuma elements – auksta komprese, gels, aerosols, aukstuma maisiņš – tos var iegādāties aptiekā. Aukstums uz traumētās vietas sašaurinās asinsvadus, mazinās asinsizplūdumu, mazinās vai nepastiprinās sāpes, neveidosies tūska. Aukstums jānodrošina vismaz 24 stundas ar nelieliem laika intervāliem. Tad divas trīs reizes dienā var sākt lietot (jāturpina vismaz piecas septiņas dienas) kādu no gēliem, ko dēvē par sporta traumu līdzekļiem, un kas satur heparīnu, dimetilsulfoksīdu, escīnu, dietilamīna salicilātu. 

Ja sāpes ir spēcīgas, lokāli var lietot gēlus, kas satur iboprofēnu, naproksenu, aceklofenku vai diklofenaku. Sāpēm mazinoties, ieteicami gēli vai krēmi ar augu ekstraktiem – zirgkastani, tauksakni, ginko bilobu, burvjlazu, arniku, piparmētru. Tie uzlabo asinsriti, mazina tūsku un sāpes. 

Pacienta ērtībām aptiekā ir pieejami arī, piemēram, arniku, diklofenaku saturoši plāksteri.

Svarīgi atcerēties!

  • Nesildiet traumēto vietu!
  • Neuzklājiet pretsāpju/prettūskas medikamentu, ja traumas rezultāta ir bojāta āda vai gļotāda. Brūce vispirms ir jāskalo, jādezinficē un tikai ap to var aplicēt gelu vai krēmu. 
  • Dziļās uzsūkšanās īpašības dēļ šos krēmus un gelus nedrīkst lietot bērna traumas gadījumā. Bez ārsta vai farmaceita konsultācijas bērnam var palīdzēt tikai ar aukstuma kompresēm. 

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